The globalization of the economy and the Arab economies
Prof. Dr. Moustafa El-Abdallah Alkafry
Globalization (M0NDIALIZATION) has become one of the most widely used words in contemporary literature. Globalization has been defined as: making the thing global, and making its scope and application universal. The phenomenon of globalization has become an overriding concern in contemporary societies. It attracts the attention of governments, institutions, research centers and the media. The role of globalization and its impact on the situation of countries and governments, their markets, exchanges and various economic activities are increasing.
Dr. Ismail Sabri Abdullah Al-Ulmah, who prefers to use the term constellation as the obvious overlap of economic, social, political, cultural and behavioral matters, with little regard for the political borders of sovereign states or belonging to a specific country or state without the need for governmental action? 
I do not know why Dr. Ismail Sabri Abdullah left the precise concept of globalization? Which means the dominance of capitalist production mode and its spread deeply to the dominance of the American style, especially as it recognizes that capitalism as a pattern of production changes its features and methods in exploitation over time. It also links the origination of globalization and the spread of multinational corporations.
(The meaning of (globalization) in the field of production and exchange: physical and symbolic with the meaning of the transition from the national, or national, to the global sphere within the concept of geo-spatial designation (global space as a whole), but also involves temporal appointment: : The state created by the modern era is an organizational framework for the manufacture of the most important facts of economic, social and cultural progress, and it can be learned that the current struggle to enforce the provisions of globalization, which ends the era, opens to others that may not be the realities of the modern era The components of their scenery, and thus lay your dams New Subject to in history, will be its strength this time instead of the national and national humanitarian community group. 
Globalization According to Dr. Sadeq Jalal Al Azm’s analysis, the arrival of the capitalist production pattern at the middle of this century almost to the point of transition from the universality of the circle of exchange, distribution, market, trade and circulation to the universality of the cycle of production and reproduction itself is that the phenomenon of globalization we are witnessing is the beginning of the globalization of production Capitalist capital, and thus capitalist relations of production, as well as their dissemination in every appropriate and appropriate place outside the original centers of society and their countries. In other words, the phenomenon of globalization that we live now is the vanguard of the transfer of the capitalist production circle to this extent or that to the parties after the exclusive duration of this period in the communities of the Center and its countries In fact because the global circulation and distribution and the market reached the satisfaction of reaching maximum The possible horizontal expansion and inclusion of all the societies of the globe except pockets here and there The dynamic of the capitalist mode of production and the dynamics of opening a new horizon for itself and exceeding boundaries that seemed to have been fixed by a new qualitative shift in turn must now take the double form of the globalization of the same production cycle and In virtually every place on the surface of the globe, on the one hand, and the reshaping of the communities of the parties again, in their present productive depth, not only on their apparent commercial surface, but on the other hand, their reformulation and formation on the appropriate picture of the accumulation processes developed at the same center ). 
Dr. Ali Aqla Arsan describes the results of globalization in a literary way when he says: “…. Thus, the globalization gives ample room for the owners of capital to raise more money at the expense of the old policy in the economy was dependent on production that leads to profit while today, Is the operation of money only without any kind of profit to gain access to the monopoly of profit: it is a statement that sums up somewhat the return of the “Shylock” Jewish historical rafters).  In the wings of informatics and the open world to the domination of arrogant power, and its resurgence in science and technology. The old rule: the strong eat the weak: to a new global modern rule that says “fast eats slow” and sharks powered by nuclear power and data of the computers and invasion of space can swallow other fish and fishers Who venture beyond the shore.
The logic of capitalist development is constantly expanding beyond borders. This is how it began centuries ago. Capitalism moved from the borders of the nation-state and the national economy to the overseas world in a process of large-scale colonial encroachment, covering most of the southern regions in search of raw materials, cheap labor, It was renewed a century ago when the world capitalist system emerged from the stage of “competition” or “free competition” into a stage of monopolizing the imperialist stage, and today, in the context of the great technological revolution, capitalist expansion is tantamount to breaking new borders: the national borders within the metropolitan capitalist camp itself. The new type of expansion today is what globalization is called, and its basic character is the unification of the world and its subordination to common laws that end all kinds of sovereignty. Decades ago, to the internationally recognized free trade regime, after the GATT negotiations and institutionalized expression in an international organization of the same name, and in laws and measures that would have no effect on the laws of national states. 
The United States played a major role in supporting capitalism in the second half of the 20th century. In addition to being the world’s largest market and largest exporter in the post-war period, the United States made the building of a global capitalist economy a cornerstone of its international political and economic orientation. As the largest exporter, it has an interest in global economic growth as it fuels its economic growth. In order to maintain their capitalist systems and institutions in the face of the threats posed by other socio-economic systems, notably socialism, much has been spent on the spread of capitalist economies in other countries, particularly Germany, Japan and other countries in Western Europe and East and South-East Asia, Western Europe and the huge aid it has provided to East Asia, the United States has used its foreign assistance to other regions of the developing world and to strengthen institutions and capital economies where possible. 
After the collapse of communism, the explosion of socialism from within, and the disintegration of the traditional right, neo-liberalism came out in the name of globalization to invade all countries, calling for free movement of capital, deregulation and deregulation, to promote free trade, leading to a divergence between financial activity and economic activity. Of the $ 1,500 billion in daily operations globally, only 1% is used to discover new wealth and the rest is under speculation. 
What are the factors that have led to the emergence of the phenomenon of globalization at present, and is this due to the collapse of the system of the State with independent borders, and does globalization involve greater homogeneity or deepening differences and differences? And whether it is a combination of all these factors or are there still other dimensions? Is globalization characterized by the existence of general cultures or group Of diverse local cultures Is globalization a vague, long-term paradigm shift between public and private, domestic and external, closed and open? Facilitating the movement of people and the movement of information, goods and services worldwide the movement and transitions that spread across borders are six main categories: goods, services, individuals, capital, ideas, information and institutions. 
The capitalist system governed by the Private Profits Act aims to expand by investing its profits and obtaining loans from the capital markets. If it does not expand it is subject to stagnation, recession and periodic crises. The historical examples of these crises are many and well known. The expansion leads to the emergence of large economic establishments through concentration and concentration of capital. 
One of the most important mechanisms for achieving this is the merger of large enterprises or the takeover by a large enterprise of a smaller entity, through procurement or otherwise. In the process of expansion, accumulating financial surpluses do not find profitable areas in real investments that lead to increased production and trade. These surpluses find their lucrative areas of speculation within the framework of a single state, and these surpluses exert pressure to secure their freedom of movement from one country to another through deregulation on the movement of capital. It is clear that the most important feature of the current global capitalist system is the so-called financial globalization. 
The modern economic system represents a new stage in the development of the global capitalist economy. It may be possible to call this phase “globalization” as defined above, or a more integrated and integrated international economy. The contemporary global economic system has a number of characteristics:
- 1 The collapse of the Bretton Woods system.
- The increasing role and importance of transnational corporations in the global economy.
- 3 The increasing role and importance of the three institutions of globalization (IMF, World Bank, World Trade Organization).
- 4 Globalization of productive activity.
- Globalization of financial activity and integration of financial markets.
- 6 Change of global economic power centers.
- Changing the structure of the world economy and development policies.
- The importance and role of traditional energy sources and raw materials in the global market has declined.
The most prominent fingerprint in the economy during the past three decades is the steady internationalization of the global economy. The internationalization of internationalization shows an increasing view of the role of international economic relations in comparison to domestic or national economic activity. This is evidenced by the growing role played by multinational corporations, which span their activities and branches around the world, and control a large and growing segment in the production, financing and distribution of global income. It is now possible to talk about a world economic level characterized by its mechanisms and problems and the prospects for its development at the national level, and the view of the world as the basic economic unit. 
The economic globalization took its place at the present stage with the victory of the global capitalist forces led by the United States of America, the collapse of the Soviet Union and socialist regimes in the Eastern European countries. The capitalist social economic system regained its dominance and spread with a new dynamism based on the market economy and the third wave of information revolution. National economies in the global capital market. These economies have become captive to market concepts and monopolistic competition dominated by giant economic peaks, transcend borders and constraints, To market forces and under the supervision of the three global economic institutions, the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Trade Organization (WTO).
The features of globalization in the economy appear through the following manifestations:
- The growing trend towards economic bloc to take advantage of the huge technological developments.
- The growing role of trans-national companies, increasing profits, expanding markets and increasing their influence in international trade.
- The increasing role of the international financial institutions, particularly in the design of economic reform programs and stabilization and structural adjustment policies in developing countries (transition to a market economy).
- Internationalization of some economic problems such as poverty, sustainable development, population and development, human development, pollution and environmental protection, and the global trend to coordinate processes to address these problems and cooperate in solving them.
- The increasing role of the Third Technical Revolution and its impact on the global economy (rapid changes in production method and product quality).
- The emergence of the global village phenomenon, and the reduction of distances due to the development of transport and communication and increased friction between peoples.
- The evolution of the media and its impact on the nature of human beings and their aspirations and behavior, and the impact on the mixing of civilizations and cultures.
- The increasing role of informatics, management, and control of information systems management.
It is important to note that globalization finds its practical aspects in all areas except in relation to the movement of the labor force. While the capital centers and their international financial institutions exert various pressures to secure the free movement of goods, services and capital, Migration of the labor force, especially from developing to developed countries. While the 18th and 19th centuries were characterized by a much greater degree of freedom of immigration, it is known that the migration of Europeans to the Americas, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa and much of the third world colonized at that time represented a safety valve for European capitalism and contributed to preventing major social changes Because of widespread unemployment and widespread poverty and misery at that stage. 
(After World War II devastation, the US economy emerged as a dominant power in the global economy, and the United States sought its strong position after the war to create a political and economic international alliance based on the assistance of Germany and Japan and in a bid to create rapid growth in Western Europe, Asia, to counter Soviet and Chinese threats, and since the 1950s there have been high levels of growth in these regions, and they have also been accompanied by high levels of growth in the Soviet Union. South and South Asia in the form of cheap and high-quality export goods that have flooded the American market and threaten to create a serious trade deficit. The United States problem has been exacerbated by the high oil prices of 1973 and 1974 and by the difficulties of shifting from one industrial economy to another based on services and technology In spite of the serious problems facing its economy in the 1970s and 1980s, the United States managed to withstand a huge trade deficit, restructured its economy and, in the early 1990s, reestablished economic power. While Western Europe has resisted rising production costs, high unemployment and other barriers. While Japan has been in a recession since 1990, the United States rebounded and recovered its market share in the major automobile and computer industries and reaffirmed its position as the world’s largest market and largest exporter. Perhaps most importantly, its spending and superior research in the field of high technology and development has placed itself in a good position to continue to dominate the global markets for software and the Internet at the turn of the 21st century. 
(We are facing terrible political and civil wars, globalization is America, the United States is a crazy force, we are a dangerous revolutionary force, and those who fear us are right. The IMF has been a cat in comparison to globalization, now the fast is eating slow.)
But globalization is not just domination, dominance and control of politics and economics, but far beyond it. It extends to cultures of peoples and national and national identity, and aims to generalize a model of behavior, patterns or systems of values, methods of living and management, (Western American) invade the cultures of other societies, and not without a new colonial orientation focused on the occupation of reason and thinking and make it work according to the objectives of the Invasion and its interests. “The next century will see the spread of American values, patterns of life and American behavior,” said former US President George W. Bush in a climate celebrating victory in the second Gulf War. 
(And we in other parts of the world must determine our position on this American hegemony and confront it. We in the Arab world must decide how we will meet this challenge as we enter the twenty-first century in ways that we hope will be more successful than those we encountered in Napoleon’s campaign against Egypt in 1798 , Or those that we have seen the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after the First World War). 
However, the strong position of the United States in the global economy is not absolute because the global economy is multi-polar. The overall Western European economy is larger than the US economy, and the economy of East and South-East Asia in general. The US economy still faces serious problems that may threaten its growth in the future. These problems include trade deficit, especially with East Asia, about $ 160 billion a year, and an accumulated international debt of more than $ 1,000 billion. As part of its strategy to strengthen its capitalist allies after the Second World War. But the size and persistence of the deficit kept the pressure on the US dollar and the risk continued to cause an excessive depreciation of the dollar. The dollar managed to maintain a strong position, but the continued deficit is accompanied by the rapid growth of the Chinese economy. China exports many commodities to the United States. The deficit in the trade balance led to the expansion of foreign investment Especially in Japan, including in the United States, as well as the purchase of large sectors of the US economy, including real estate, industrial and service institutions, and the foreign debt of $ 1 billion dollars, mostly owed to Japan imposes a steady bleeding on the budget The public and prevent the recruitment of significant resources in the economy and in productive activities while it is possible to carry this debt due to the US GNP, which more than seven thousand million dollars, this debt keeps hampering the rapid growth. 
Globalization has goals beyond profit and beyond free trade, open borders and free markets. The danger lies in the so-called culture of globalization. Globalization promotes four fundamental revolutions that are expected to have a significant impact on the lives of all people amid enormous challenges. These revolutions are: 
- The democratic revolution.
- The Third or Third Technological Revolution.
- 3 Revolution of the economic blocs, especially the giant.
- Revolution of market economy and freedom of trade, after the establishment of the World Trade Organization to replace the GATT.
Within the framework of these revolutions and the effects of the global system is built (globalization), the economy depends on the investment of time at low cost and through the use of new knowledge and conversion to new goods or services or the rapid and continuous improvement of products and methods of manufacturing and market access in an effective manner . Economic development no longer means changing from bad to better, but what is important is the time it takes.
Example: In the area of doubling the productivity of the individual:
- In 1780 the United Kingdom needed about 60 years to double its per capita productivity.
- In 1880, Japan’s empire needed about 34 years to multiply its per capita productivity.
- In 1966, South Korea needed about 11 years to double its per capita productivity.
How does globalization happen? In what way or through which channels are the movement and movement of goods, services, individuals, capital, ideas, information, symbols, trends and cross-border behavior patterns? What is the role of transnational companies in this?
In the opinion of Rosenau one of the leading American political scientists. The propagation process is carried out through four interrelated and interrelated methods:
- Through two-way dialogue interaction via communication technology.
- monological contact one-way through the middle class.
- Through competition and simulation.
- Through the similarity of institutions. 
But Rosano forgets or forgets the important and important role of transnational companies in the process of movement and movement, especially in the field of goods, services and capital, which is one of the most important elements of global transfers.
XII – Transnational corporations from the strongest locomotives of capitalism towards globalization:
Multinational corporations are among the strongest locomotives used by capitalism to drag the scientific economy towards globalization for the following reasons: 
- The wide and rapid spread of multinational companies, reaching about 40 thousand companies operating in all sectors covering the five continents. The revenue of the largest 500 multinational companies in 1996 was about $ 11,000 billion, accounting for 44% of the world’s GDP, which reached about $ 23,000 billion. (The Arab world is 576 billion). The multinational companies control one-third of foreign direct investment and two-thirds of international trade in goods and services.
- 2 The key role played by multinationals in the internationalization of investment, production, services and trade has led to the dominance of global patterns of production in terms of production relations, ownership of means of production, marketing, consumption, investment, advertising and publicity.
- 3 Globalization is often accompanied by increased incomes of owners of means of production and the increase in the value of shares of multinational companies, as well as the increasing number of disenfranchised in these companies, and this confirms that there is no place for human feelings and attitudes in the global capitalist system. If there is a choice between humanity and the vitality of the economy, capitalism has only the second option, which has led to the separation of 43 million workers from American institutions in twenty years.
Multinationals have become the global economy. It controls the production, exchange, distribution, pricing, facilitating access or preventing its arrival. It also controls the stability of its manufacturing centers in this geographical area. It controls the movement of capital and the creation or resolution of crises. It controls the pillars of politics and the economy.
(There is a very important issue, the position of the different societies of globalization, there is a great ideological, political, economic and cultural battle that revolves around globalization, there are totally rejecting trends that are against the course of history and will not succeed. Is the language of the next era, which ignores the serious negatives of some aspects of globalization, and there are critical trends that try to understand the laws governing globalization and realize in advance that globalization is indeed a historical process, but that does not mean the inevitability of the values on which it is currently based, The European Union and France, in particular, rejected the old position of the French Socialist Party, which crystallized in particular in the party’s April 3, 1996 report, Globalization, Europe and France), which includes the most violent criticism of American globalization. Moreover, within the United States of America, anti-globalization intellectual movements have begun to rise. They have not been persuaded by detailed criticism of all aspects of economic, political and cultural globalization. What these movements mean currently active “book edited by Jerry Mander and Edward Smith in 1996, entitled: (case against the global economy and about turning to local) It contains more than forty in-depth study). 
Globalization in the global economy represents an external and dangerous challenge for Arab countries and their economies. At the same time, the Arab nation is being watched and threatened, living a period of rivalry, erosion and marginalization, losing any dynamic political economic strategy of defense or attack. That the processes of pressure and weakening that target our Arab homeland in order to destabilize and disable its qualifications so that it remains only a negative integration in the mechanisms of globalization and in the form known by the powerful under the name of the globalization of the economy or economic globalization. 
The debate continues between three opposing intellectual currents on the phenomenon of globalization and its economic impact on our Arab countries:
The first is that globalization is generally good and beneficial. Because we will benefit from accelerated technological progress and the integration of the global economy, which may offer an unprecedented opportunity to eradicate poverty and give millions of lives a better life. Even though globalization will inevitably lead to “the loss of some of the Arab states to some of their sovereignty in directing their economies as they want, and defend this trend / the three institutions of globalization, the United States of America and some businessmen and technocrats.
The second trend – believes that globalization is a reality as a result of objective development of the productive forces of capitalism and scientific and technical progress, and lead to more tangles and integration between different economies, but this globalization in its present dimensions are raised around observations and criticism of new and serious that the most important gains affect a small number of countries with a population Do not exceed 20% of the world’s total population. While its disadvantages affect most developing countries and lead to an increase in their economic problems and hinder their development process. This trend is being adopted by some thinkers in third world countries and some leftist and socialist forces in capitalist countries.
The third trend – confirms that globalization is one of the evils of the global capitalist system, because it seeks to compensate the economies of the developed capitalist countries for shrinking domestic markets, and by transferring more production processes entirely (especially dirty) from major capitalist centers industries to developing countries while retaining under the leadership of the productive process In the world, capitalism through globalization tries to solve its economic problems by exporting them to Third World countries. This is a cycle that will lead to an increase in rich people and poor people. This trend is supported by most of the political, economic and social forces in developing countries that are aware of the degree of poverty, malnutrition, malfunction, widespread diseases and dependence, and the continued plundering of the resources of third world countries through multinational corporations and unequal trade.
In the light of globalization stressful environment in which the state tasks back down in the Arab world to become confined to mere daily administrative management policies imposed and programs of international globalization institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank and the World Trade Organization and other international financial institutions such as USAID and in accordance with the terms and requirements of the companies translational nationality emerged So invest in the Arab countries. (In other words, the task entrusted to the state in the Arab countries and others become just the management of the crisis or crisis management policy. The economic crisis management point from the point of capitalist view, the importance of avoiding escalation of the accumulation of the huge and growing surplus of capital is invested, or which can be invested in The process of expanding the productive system means that the policies of free trade, global capital flows, high rates of interest and the growth of external debt are only methods and means created by the global capitalist system in order to prevent the failure of this system, Developing). 
- In the light of the multiplicity of patterns of production in all Arab countries (capitalist mode of production, pre-capitalist mode of production, non-capitalist mode of production), globalization aims at eliminating non-capitalist production patterns and eliminating their conditions in favor of the sovereignty and conditions of the capitalist mode of production.
- In light of the rapid increase in population in the Arab world, this large number of human masses must continue to be produced, produced and consumed under classical or semi-classical capitalist conditions.
- Globalization aims to transform all direct producers in Arab countries into wage labor, that is, to make their incomes dependent on the market only, with the rapid decline of social, legal and customary arrangements that guaranteed the individual a right to income in isolation from market considerations.
- In the Arab countries, globalization will inevitably lead to increased unemployment in all its forms and types, because the shift in the form of ownership of means of production in favor of private ownership will lead to a demand for the labor force in the context of globalization to be much less than the supply of labor.
- It is expected that globalization will deepen the economic disintegration of the Arab countries, the lack of interdependence between sectors of the national economy. (Where the phosphate sector in a country is more strongly linked to the oil sector, for example, in the same country, which in turn is linked to the global oil market more than to the local agriculture sector and the country itself).
- The result of globalization will be the export of the most polluting industries to the environment from the center to the Arab and Third World countries and the export of industries that require high labor intensity rather than high capital density.
- The food bill imported to the Arab countries will be increased due to the liberalization of trade in foodstuffs and the abolition of export support policies in the countries of the Center.
- The tendency to decline manufacturing industries in the Arab world due to their lack of competitiveness will be due to their reliance on protectionist policies for a long period of time.
It is expected that the importance of Arab oil will decline because the importance of Arab oil is linked to the extent of the capital’s countries’ need for this oil. Alternatives to oil may be discovered because of rapid scientific progress.
The spread of the Western consumption pattern in the Arab countries has exhausted their financial resources and distorted the demand structure in these countries, especially the effective and large demand for the rich sectors that are characterized by their willingness to acquire everything that is imported and all that is expensive. The fake appearance and spending of most of this social group is rampant between men and women, both in terms of buying the latest clothing in the West, or in the latest models of cars, computers, computers and entertainment. . “In some households, everyone has a computer or a television set in his room, sometimes a telephone and other entertainment equipment.”
The world is looking at us today as one Arab nation with a long civilization and a desire to build the future of its generations. The Arab economic bloc must confront the global economic blocs of America, Africa, Asia and the Americas instead of devising narrow national policies. We must seize the opportunity to lay the groundwork for Arab economic cooperation to enter the new world order and we are approaching the third millennium of birth. We can point to a number of measures by which globalization can be confronted:
- Supporting economic reforms in the Arab countries and qualifying the Arab economy to enter the twenty-first century within the giant global economic blocs.
- Establishing an Arab market for capital and its movement within the framework of the Arab world, establishing a legal framework and new legislation that are compatible with the changes taking place in international markets.
- Free movement of elements of production, production, labor force, people and capital among the Arab countries. As well as freedom of ownership and inheritance.
- Consolidation of monetary, fiscal, customs, transport, transit and foreign trade policies.
- The establishment of an Arab socio-economic observatory to evaluate and propose Arab economic policies and to identify differences and avoidance factors. This requires a consultative cell of Arab experts to think about Arab economic policies in light of international changes. The League of Arab States can play an important role in accomplishing this.
The future of the Arab world should be foreseen in the regional and international environment, and a specific concept should be developed for the Arab national security. It is expected that the common Arab market and the related issues of protection, support, competition and economic freedom will be possible. 
- Developing a strategy for building competitiveness, which is one of the most important elements of the overall strategy for comprehensive development in the Arab world.
- Upgrading human capacities at the level of the Arab world.
- The lesson of the Chinese experience in dealing with globalization can be an important lesson for all developing countries and the Arab countries in particular. The country was able to launch the process of development with its economic and social wings. It succeeded, relying on its own potentials and energies in the first place. It also tried to reform its socialist economy without destroying it, reforming it and seeking to deal with globalization with an open mind and the strength of the Chinese economy. And public.
The world of the future is the world of economic blocs, the world of companies and major investments, the world of technology and information, the world of management capable and effective decision. Therefore, the Arab countries must take decisive steps in the irreversible continuity to achieve the goal of Arab economic integration and Arab economic unity without which Arabs cannot build a viable Arab economy and compete in the modern economy.
Prof. Dr Moustafa El-Abdallah Alkafry
Faculty of Economics – University of Damascus
Damascus, Syria, PO Box 12341
- Ismail Sabri Abdullah, the Global Capitalistic Constellation in the Post-Imperialist Period, Al-Tarek Magazine, 4 July 1997.
- Abd Elah Balqziz, Globalization and Cultural Identity: The Globalization of Culture or the Culture of Globalization? , Paper presented to the symposium (Arabs and Globalization) organized by the Center for Arab Unity Studies Beirut 18 – 20 December 1997 published by the magazine Future Arab, No. 229 March 1998.
- Dr . Sadeq Jalal Al Azm, What is Globalization? Journal of the Road No. 4, July 1997.
- Ali Aqla Arsan President of the Union of Arab Writers, Damascus. See Literary Week, Issue No. 602, and dated 14 March 1998.
- Abd Elah Balqiz, Globalization and Cultural Identity: The Globalization of Culture or the Culture of Globalization.
- Dr . Ramzi Zaki, The Phenomenon of Internationalization in the World Economy and its Implications for Developing Countries, Arab Planning Institute, Kuwait, Kuwait, 1993.
- Al-Sharq Al-Awsat newspaper, issued on 2/3/1997.
- Paul Salem, United States and Globalization: Features of Hegemony at the Beginning of the Twenty-first Century, Paper presented to the Arab and World Symposium, Beirut, 18-20 December 1997.
- Dr . Ali Ali Hobeish, Globalization and Scientific Research, Al-Ahram Economic Supplement, December 1, 1998.
- Lecture by Dr. Mufid Helmi on globalization – Damascus 16/12/1997
- Alseed Yassin, in the Concept of Globalization, Journal of the Future Arab, Center for Arab Unity Studies, No. 228 February 1998.
- See, Hadi Maqbool, Taher Hussein and Abdelkader Lawi, Globalization and its Implications for the Arab World – Bets and Horizons, Proceedings of the Symposium on Development Requirements in the Middle East, Ismailia 1996.
 – Ismail Sabri Abdullah, The Global Capitalistic Constellation in the Post-Imperialist Period, Al-Tarek Magazine, 4 July 1997, p. 47.
 – Abd Elah Balqziz, Globalization and Cultural Identity: The Globalization of Culture or the Culture of Globalization? , Paper presented to the symposium (Arabs and Globalization) organized by the Center for Arab Unity Studies Beirut 18 – 20 December 1997 published by the magazine Future Arab, No. 229 March 1998 p.
 – Dr . Sadeq Jalal Al Azm, What is Globalization? Journal of the Road No. 4, July 1997 p.
 – Dr. Ali Aqla Arsan President of the Union of Arab Writers, Damascus. See Literary Week, Issue No. 602, dated 14 March 1998, p. 19.
 – Abd Elah Balqziz, Globalization and Cultural Identity: The Globalization of Culture or the Culture of Globalization? , P. 97.
 – Paul Salem, United States and Globalization: Hegemonic Features at the Beginning of the 21st Century, p. 84.
 – For more information, see Le Monde Diplomatique, Globalization Inquiry, and Accident Journal, 29 May 1998.
 – See, Alssed Yassin, the study of one of the most prominent American political scientists James Rosenau, The Dynamics of Globalization towards Formulating a Process, Strategic Readings, and Center for Political and Strategic Studies, Cairo, 1997.
 – For more information, can go back to the book Capital criticism of political economy, Karl Marx.
 – See, A paper presented to the symposium (Arabs and the World) organized by the Center for Arab Unity Studies, Beirut 18-20 December 1997, published in the Arab Future magazine, No. 229 March 1998, pp. 101-102.
 – Dr . Ramzi Zaki, The Phenomenon of Internationalization in the World Economy and its Implications for Developing Countries, Arab Planning Institute, Kuwait, Kuwait, 1993.
 – See, A paper presented to the symposium (Arabs and the World) organized by the Center for Arab Unity Studies, Beirut 18-20 December 1997, published in the magazine Future Arab No. 229 March 1998, p. 106.
 – Paul Salem, United States and Globalization: Features of Hegemony at the Beginning of the Twenty-first Century, Paper presented to the Arab and World Symposium, Beirut, 18-20 December 1997.
 – Al-Sharq Al-Awsat newspaper, issued on 2/3/1997.
 – Literary Week, Issue No. 602 of 14/3/1998, p. 19.
 – Paul Salem, United States and Globalization: Features of Hegemony at the Beginning of the Twenty-first Century, Paper presented to the Arab and World Symposium, Beirut, 18-20 December 1997.
 – Paul Salem, United States and Globalization: Hegemonic Features at the Beginning of the 21st Century, p. 85.
 – Dr . Ali Ali Hobeish, Globalization and Scientific Research, Al-Ahram Economic Supplement, December 1, 1998, p. 18.
 – Alseed Yassin, former source.
 – Lecture by Dr. Mufid Helmi on globalization – Damascus 16/12/1997
 – Alseed Yassin, in the Concept of Globalization, Journal of the Future Arab, Center for Arab Unity Studies, No. 228 February 1998, p. 12 – 13.
 – See, Hadi Maqbool, Taher Hussein and Abdelkader Lawi, Globalization and its Implications for the Arab World – Bets and Horizons, Proceedings of the Symposium on Development Requirements in the Middle East, Ismailia 1996, p. 290.
 – Alseed Yassin, in the Concept of Globalization, Journal of the Future Arab, Center for Arab Unity Studies, No. 228 February 1998.
 – See Ali Ali Hobeish, previous source.