Globalization of the economy and Arab economies

Prof. Dr Moustafa Mohammad El-Abdallah Al Kafry

((Globalization of the economy and Arab economies))

Prof. Dr Moustafa Mohammad El-Abdallah Al Kafry

Journal of Political Thought

Arab Writers Union

((Globalization of the economy and Arab economies))

The research was published in the Journal of Political Thought in Arabic, Arab Writers Union

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Introduction:

        Globalization (M0NDIALIZATION) has become one of the most used words in contemporary literature. Globalization has been defined as: universalization, universalization of the scope and application of something. The phenomenon of globalization has become a predominant concern in contemporary societies, attracting the attention of Governments, institutions, research centers and the media. The role of globalization and its impact on the situation, markets, stock exchanges and various economic activities of States and Governments has increased.

Dr. Ismail Sabri Abdullah defines globalization, which is preferred to use the term constellation in its place, as: (the clear overlap of economic, social, political, cultural and behavioral matters without regard to the political borders of sovereign states or belonging to a specific homeland or a specific state and without the need for governmental procedures). [1]

    I do not know why Dr. Ismail Sabri Abdullah moved away from the precise concept of globalization. This means the dominance of the capitalist mode of production and its deep spread, even the dominance of the American model, especially as it recognizes that capitalism as a mode of production changes its features and methods of exploitation over time. It also links the emergence of globalization to the spread of multinational corporations.

“The meaning of ‘globalization’ in the field of production and exchange: material and symbolic, is associated with the meaning of moving from the national sphere, or national, to the cosmic sphere in the hollow of the concept, a geographical spatial designation (the entire global space), but it also involves a temporal designation: the post-nation-state era: the state produced by the modern era as an entity framework for the manufacture of the most important facts of economic, social and cultural progress. It may be inferred from this that the current tendency to enforce the provisions of globalization, by putting an end to that era, inaugurates another that may not be the realities of the modern era prevailing for nearly five centuries – a component of its scene, and thus lays the foundations for a new revolution in history, the strength of which this time will be the human group rather than the national and national community.”[2]

Globalization, according to the analysis of Dr. Sadiq Jalal al-Azm, means: “The arrival of the capitalist mode of production, at about the middle of this century, to the point of transition from the universality of the circle of exchange, distribution, market, trade and circulation, to the universality of the circle of production and reproduction itself, that is, the phenomenon of globalization that we are witnessing is the beginning of the globalization of production, productive capital and capitalist productive forces, and therefore capitalist relations of production as well, and their dissemination in every appropriate and appropriate place outside the societies and countries of the center of origin. Globalization in this sense is the capitalization of the world at the depth level, after its capitalization at the level of the surface of the pattern and its manifestations has been completed. In other words, the phenomenon of globalization that we are experiencing now is the vanguard of transferring the circle of capitalist production to one extent or another to the periphery after this period of time has been completely confined to the societies and states of the center. In fact, because the universality of the circle of exchange, distribution and market has reached the point of saturation by reaching the maximum possible horizontal expansion and encompassing all the societies of the globe except pockets here and there, the dynamics of the capitalist mode of production and dynamism had to open a new horizon for itself and transcend previously “fixed” limits through a new paradigm shift that in turn now takes the dual form of globalization of the same cycle of production and its scattering in almost every appropriate place on the surface of the globe, on the one hand, and re- Reformulation of the societies of the periphery, this time in their productive depth, and not only on their apparent commercial exchange, on the other hand, i.e. their reformulation and reconstitution in the appropriate way of the accumulation processes created in the same center.” [3]

Dr. Ali Oqla Arsan describes the results of globalization in a literary way when he says: [4]

“…. Thus, we find that globalization gives ample room for the owners of capital to raise more money at the expense of an old policy in the economy that relied on production that leads to profit, whereas today dependence is on the operation of money only without fines of any kind to reach the monopoly of profit: it is a statement that sums up to some extent the return of “Shylock”, the historical Jewish moneylender, loaded on the wings of information and the open world to the control of the arrogant power, and his return armed with science and technology overturns the old rule:  The strong eat the weak: to a new, modern, globalized rule of “fast eats slow,” a nuclear-powered shark, computer data and space conquest can swallow other fish and fishermen who venture farther ashore.

“The logic of capitalist development requires continuous expansion beyond borders, so it began centuries ago, capitalism moved from the borders of the nation-state and the national economy to a world (overseas) in a process of extensive colonial advance, which included most of the southern regions of the earth in search of raw materials, cheap labor and markets, and thus renewed a century ago when the world capitalist system emerged from the phase of (competition) or (free competition) to the phase of monopolizing the imperialist phase. Today, in the context of the Great Technological Revolution, capitalist expansion is reaching its peak, overthrowing new borders: national borders within the metropolitan capitalist camp itself. Having long overthrown the boundaries of subordinate communities belonging to the southern system. Today, this new pattern of expansion is what is called globalization, and its main feature is to unite the world and subject it to common laws that put an end to all kinds of sovereignty. The signs of this path began from the birth of the phenomenon of multinational companies, decades ago, and today it reaches the free trade system that was internationally approved, after the GATT negotiations, and was expressed institutionally in an international organization of the same name, and in laws and measures that invalidate the laws in force in national states.” [5]

“The United States played a major role in its support and triumph over capitalism during the second half of the twentieth century.    An exporting country therefore has an interest in global economic development because it fuels its economic growth. In order to preserve its capitalist systems and institutions against the threats posed by other socio-economic systems, the most important of which is Soviet communism, it spent much on the spread of capitalist economies in other countries, especially among its former enemies Germany and Japan, and in other countries in Western Europe and in East and Southeast Asia, in addition to the Marshall Plan in Western Europe. In addition to the massive aid it provided to East Asia, the United States used its foreign aid to other regions of the developing world and to strengthen capitalist institutions and economies wherever She could.” [6]

[1] – Ismail Sabri Abdullah, The World Capitalist Constellation in the Post-Imperialist Phase, Al-Tariq Magazine, No. 4, July 1997, p. 47.

[2] – Abdelilah Belkeziz, Globalization and Cultural Identity: The Globalization of Culture or the Culture of Globalization? a paper presented to the symposium (Arabs and Globalization) organized by the Center for Arab Unity Studies, Beirut, 18-20 December 1997, published by the Arab Future Magazine, No. 229, March 1998, p. 91.

[3] – Dr. Sadiq Jalal Al-Azm, what is globalization? Al-Tariq Magazine, No. 4, July 1997, p. 20.

[4] – Dr. Ali Oqla Arsan, President of the Arab Writers Union, Damascus. See Literary Week, No. 602 of 14/3/1998, p. 19.

[5] – Abdelilah Belkeziz, Globalization and Cultural Identity: Globalization of Culture or Culture of Globalization?, op. cit., p. 97.

[6] – Paul Salem, The United States and Globalization: Milestones of Hegemony at the Beginning of the Twenty-first Century, paper presented to the symposium (Arabs and the World) organized by the Center for Arab Unity Studies, Beirut, 18-20 December 1997, published in the Arab Future Magazine, No. 229, March 1998, p. 84.

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